INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Perfectly integrated learning solutions – A Learning Management System (LMS) or a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is a web application that educators can use to create effective online learning sites.

 

What is Instructional Design?

A systematic design process that is based on learning theories, information technology, systematic analysis, educational research and management methods.

Organizational learning refers to employees acquiring knowledge, skills, competencies, attitudes and behaviors. Managing organizational talent is necessary to attract, retain, develop and motivate high skilled and performing employees. The changing demographics and diversity of the workforce is leading to increased age and cultural diversity of the workforce.

The utilization of unique models that address the diversity, complexity, various perspectives and backgrounds of workplace environments have produced strong models that continue to emerge and evolve; it is essential that organizations apply these methods in order to effectively manage employee development.

    Learning Management Systems

    The philosophy of any Learning Management System includes a classic constructivist and social constructivist approach to education, emphasizing that learners (and not just teachers) can contribute to the educational experience.

    Key components of a corporate e-learning strategy are a content delivery system and related technologies that allow content customization, such as authoring tools or learning content management. A learning management system (LMS) uses software applications to administer, track, and report on e-learning.

    Using these pedagogical principles, Bilingual Solutions specializes in the development of educational platforms for your business or educational institution to provide a flexible environment for learning communities.

     

    Why Instructional Design?

    One of the primary goals of instructional design is to make learning more efficient, effective and less difficult and focus on improving human performance.

    Learning Theories

    Behaviorism
    Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement[2]. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again.

    References
    Skinner, B. F. (2011). About behaviorism. Vintage.
    Watson, J. B. (2013). Behaviorism. Read Books Ltd.
    Pavlov, I. P., & Anrep, G. V. (2003). Conditioned reflexes. Courier Corporation.

    Cognitivism

    The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm. Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata.

    References
    Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective.Performance improvement quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.
    Cooper, P. A. (1993). Paradigm Shifts in Designed Instruction: From Behaviorism to Cognitivism to Constructivism. Educational technology, 33(5), 12-19.

    Constructivism

    A reaction to didactic approaches such as behaviorism and programmed instruction, constructivism states that learning is an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation. Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. The learner is not a blank slate (tabula rasa) but brings past experiences and cultural factors to a situation.

    References
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard university press.
    Piaget, J. (2013). The construction of reality in the child (Vol. 82). Routledge.
    Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective.Performance improvement quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.

    Social Learning Theory

    People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors[1]. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura).

    Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.

    References
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.
    Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Bandura, A. & Walters, R. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

    Gamification in Education

    Gamification in education, or gamification in learning, is sometimes described using other terms: gameful thinking, game principles for education, motivation design, engagement design, etc. It is different from game-based learning in that it does not involve students making their own games or playing commercially-made video games. It operates under the assumption that the kind of engagement that gamers experience with games can be translated to an educational context towards the goals of facilitating learning and influencing student behavior. Since gamers voluntarily spend lots of hours playing games and problem-solving, researchers and educators have been exploring ways to use the power of videogames for motivation and apply it to the learning environment.

    References
    Malone, T. W. (1981). What makes things fun to learn? A study of intrinsically motivating computer games. Pipeline, 6(2), 50.

    E-learning Design Principles

    The researchers started from an understanding of cognitive load theory to establish the set of principles that compose e-learning theory. Cognitive load theory refers to the amount of mental effort involved in working memory, and these amounts are categorized into three categories: extraneous, intrinsic, and germane.

    Extraneous cognitive load is any effort imposed by the way that the task is delivered (having to find the correct essay topic on a page full of essay topics).

    Intrinsic cognitive load refers to the effort involved in performing the task itself (actually writing the essay).

    Germane cognitive load describes the effort involved in understanding a task and accessing it or storing it in long-term memory (for example, seeing an essay topic and understanding what you are being asked to write about).

    The Best Solution for Professional Development

    A Perfectly Integrated Learning Solution